Citations

 

Chapter 2 – Science

 

[292] Proverbs 27:22 NIV

 

[293] Article: "Tide." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

"The moon, being much nearer to the earth than the sun, is the principal cause of tides."

 

[294] Article: "Amazon." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

"During new and full moon a tidal bore, or wave front from the ocean, sweeps some 650 km (more than 400 mi) upstream [in the Amazon River] at speeds in excess of 65 km/hr (40 mph). This phenomenon, known as pororoca, often causes waves up to 5 m (16 ft) in height."

 

[295] Textbook: An Introduction to The World's Oceans. By Alyn C. Duxbury & Alison Duxbury. Addison-Wesley, 1984. Pages 244-245:

 

The most common generating force for water waves is the moving air, or wind. As the wind blows across a smooth water surface, the friction (or drag) between the air and water tends to stretch the surface, resulting in wrinkles; surface tension acts on these wrinkles to restore a smooth surface. The wind and the surface tension create small waves, called ripples, or capillary waves (see Fig. 8.1). …

 

When the wind blows, energy is transferred to the water over large areas for varying lengths of time. A surface of capillary waves is rougher than a smooth water surface, and it is easier for the wind to grip the roughened water surface and add energy. There is increased frictional drag between the air and the water. As the wind energy is increased, the oscillations of the water surface become larger, and the restoring force changes from surface tension to gravity (see Fig. 8.2).

 

Page 258:

 

A deep water wave at last begins to approach the shore and shallow water. … The wave begins to "feel" the bottom, which acts to reduce the forward speed of the wave.

 

Page 265:

 

Breakers are formed in the surf zone because the water particle motion at depth is affected by the bottom and is slowed down. However, the orbit speed of water particles near the crest of the wave is not slowed as much, and so these particles move faster toward the shore than the wave form itself. This relationship results in the breaking of the wave.

 

NOTE: This is the actual textbook for the course I took in college.

 

[296] Article: "Waves." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2002. Volume 12.

 

[297] Web page: "Back to School Statistics for 2009." National Center for Education Statistics, United States Department of Education. Accessed August 26, 2009 at http://nces.ed.gov/FastFacts/display.asp?id=372

 

"Current expenditures for public elementary and secondary schools will be about $543 billion for the 2009−10 school year. The national average current expenditure per student is projected at $10,844, up from $9,683 in actual expenditures in 2006−07 (source and  source)."

 

CALCULATION: $10,844/student × 13 years = $140,972/student for 13 years of K-12 education.

 

[298] Psalms 107:25 (New King James Version)

 

[299] Job 26:7 (New King James Version)

 

[300] 1 Samuel 2:8

 

[301] Book: Word Biblical Commentary: 1 Samuel. By Ralph W. Klein. Word Books, 1983.

 

The comment section on 1 Samuel 2:8 states: "The major difficulty with our interpretation is the word 'pillars'.... The meaning of the word, in our judgment, is not certain…."

 

[302] The New King James Version uses "pillars."

 

The New International Version uses "foundations."

 

Young's Literal Translation uses "fixtures."

 

[303] Book: The Anchor Bible: I Samuel. By P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. Doubleday, 1980. Page 72.

 

[304] Book: Word Biblical Commentary: 1 Samuel. By Ralph W. Klein. Word Books, 1983.

 

The comment section on 1 Samuel 2:8 states: "Lexicographers derive it from the word קּרּצּ, equate that with קּצּיּ, meaning 'pour out,' and construe it as some sort of cast metal pillar."

 

[305] Book: The Anchor Bible: I Samuel. By P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. Doubleday, 1980. Page 73:

 

These … are the great rivers of the underworld. … The verbal root of māsûq is sûq from common yāsaq, "pour out." The English nouns "narrows, straits" referring to bodies of water are semantically comparable. The "straits of the earth" in Israelite tradition were also the swift-running waters where men were judged, and this is the context in which the succeeding bicolon is to be understood….

 

[306] Book: The Expositor's Bible Commentary: 1 Samuel. By Ronald F. Youngblood. The section on 1 Samuel 2 states:

 

Although 1 Samuel 2:1-10 is a prayer … it is commonly referred to as the "Song of Hannah" because of its lyrical qualities and similarities to other OT [Old Testament] hymns…. Willis has shown that the Song of Hannah is a royal song of victory/triumph that is to be classified among other ancient hymns listed above…. In terms of poetic style, all contain repetitive parallelism in both bicola and tricola, exhibit a staccato effect, and tend to repeat important words in sequence.

 

[307] Ancient Work: Dialogue on the Great World Systems. By Galileo Galilei. Published in 1632. Translated by Thomas Salusbury. Revised and introduced by Giorgio de Santillana. University of Chicago Press, 1953.

 

The introduction (page xlvii) quotes from the Catholic Church's ruling against Galileo. It declares he is "vehemently suspected of heresy, namely of having believed and held the doctrine—which is false and contrary to the sacred and divine Scriptures—that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from east to west, and that the Earth moves and is not the center of the world…."

 

[308] Psalm 19:5-6 (New King James Version)

 

[309] Book: Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Translated with an introduction and notes by Stillman Drake. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957.

 

Page 12: "Early in the sixteenth century the Polish astronomer Copernicus … suggested placing the sun at or near the center of the heavens and giving the earth an orbit equivalent to that which had previously been assigned to the sun."

 

Page 159 quotes from a letter written by a friend of Galileo's and states:

 

If things are fixed according to the Copernican system, [he said], it does not appear presently that they would have any greater obstacle in the Bible than the passage [the sun] exults as a strong man to run his course, etc., which all expositors up to now have understood by attributing motion to the sun.

 

[310] Book: Kepler. By Max Caspar. Translated and edited by C. Doris Hellman. Abelard-Schuman, 1959.

 

Regarding "the intellectual situation towards the close of the sixteenth century," page 18 states:

 

The authority of Aristotle, who since the peak of scholasticism had reigned over the both the philosophical and the physical domain, had in manner been intensified, so that it was believed that finding and demonstrating the truth called for and demanded supporting a thesis with citations from the philosopher.

 

[311] Article: "Jesuits." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

[The Jesuits were a] religious order of men in the Roman Catholic church…. Its members took leading parts in the Counter Reformation…. For 150 years they were the leaders in European education; by 1640 they had more than 500 colleges throughout Europe…. The education of Jesuits in the period of the Counter Reformation was designed to strengthen Roman Catholicism against Protestant expansion.

 

[312] Article: "Counter Reformation." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

"[A] movement within the Roman Catholic church in the 16th and 17th centuries that sought to revitalize the church and to oppose Protestantism."

 

[313] Ancient Work: On the Heavens. By Aristotle. Published in 350 B.C. Translated by J. L. Stocks in The Works of Aristotle Translated Into English. Clarendon Press, 1922. http://grtbooks.com/exitfram.asp?idx=0&yr=...

 

Book 2, Part 14: "It is clear, then, that the earth must be at the centre and immovable…."

 

Book 2, Part 4: "The shape of the heaven is of necessity spherical…. Again, since the whole [heaven] revolves, palpably and by assumption, in a circle…."

 

[314] Ancient Work: Dialogue on the Great World Systems. By Galileo Galilei. Published in 1632. Translated by Thomas Salusbury. Revised and introduced by Giorgio de Santillana. University of Chicago Press, 1953. The introduction (page xxxix) states:

 

What had actually happened began to be apparent. The Jesuits, who were coming to be the General Staff of the Roman Church, had shown the Pope that under the rhetorical mask the argument was a compelling plea for the Copernican system, which threatened the whole educational system they had reorganized and tightened for the Counter-Reformation. They pointed out, in fact, that Galileo might be more dangerous for the traditional ideas "than Luther and Calvin themselves." Since they had built up the educational system around Aristotle, they had good reason to say so.

 

[315] Book: Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Translated with an introduction and notes by Stillman Drake. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957.

 

Pages 226-227 explain that Galileo was attacked in a book written by a Jesuit named Grassi:

 

Galileo's friends were unanimous in urging him not to let this book go by unanswered, for it contained many serious and unjust accusations. But fearing the consequences of a frontal attack upon the powerful Jesuits, they counseled him to reply in some indirect way. Accordingly Galileo wrote his reply in the form of a letter to a friend. … The result was the greatest polemic ever written in physical science. It was called The Assayer….

 

[316] Article: "Galileo." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

"Since the full publication of Galileo's trial documents in the 1870s, entire responsibility for Galileo's condemnation has customarily been placed on the Roman Catholic church. This conceals the role of the philosophy professors who first persuaded theologians to link Galileo's science with heresy."

 

[317] Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina. Written in 1615 by Galileo Galilei. Translated in the book: Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. By Stillman Drake. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957. Page 206.

 

[318] Proverbs 17:22a (New King James Version)

 

[319] Study: "Emotional Style and Susceptibility to the Common Cold." By Sheldon Cohen and others. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, July/August 2003. http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/4/652

 

NOTE: The 60% figure comes from Figure 1. The 2.9 figure comes from this quote: "For both viruses, increased positive emotional style (PES) was associated (in a dose-response manner) with lower risk of developing a cold. This relationship was maintained after controlling for prechallenge virus-specific antibody, virus-type, age, sex, education, race, body mass, and season (adjusted relative risk comparing lowest-to-highest tertile = 2.9)."

 

[320] Article: "Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)." Prepared by the Natural Standard® Patient Monograph, May 1, 2006. http://mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-c/NS_patient-vitaminC

 

[321] Proverbs 17:22b (New King James Version)

 

[322] This is reinforced by the fact that the phrase, "the bones," is translated from the Hebrew word "gerem," which can also be translated as "strength." [Dictionary and Word Search: "gerem" (Strong's 1634). Blue Letter Bible. Accessed September 2, 2009 at http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H1634&t=KJV]

 

[323] Study: "Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold." By S Cohen, DA Tyrrell, and AP Smith. New England Journal of Medicine, August 29, 1991. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/325/9/606

 

[324] Study: "A fundamental bimodal role for neuropeptide Y1 receptor in the immune system." By Julie Wheway, Charles R. Mackay, Rebecca A. Newton, Amanda Sainsbury, Dana Boey, Herbert Herzog, and Fabienne Mackay. Journal of Experimental Medicine, December 5, 2005. http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/abstract/202/11/1527

 

[325] Matthew 10:27-28 [Jesus speaking]: "And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."

 

[326] Study: "Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands." By Pim van Lommel and others. The Lancet, December 15, 2001. Pages 2039-2045. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/...

 

"Some people who have survived a life-threatening crisis report an extraordinary experience. Near-death experience (NDE) occurs with increasing frequency because of improved survival rates resulting from modern techniques of resuscitation."

 

NOTE: In this study, 344 patients resuscitated at ten Dutch hospitals were interviewed. Of these, 62 patients reported experiences such as moving through a tunnel, communication with light, meeting deceased people, etc.

 

[327] Correspondence: "Near-death experiences." By John M. Evans. The Lancet, June 15, 2002. Page 2116. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/...

 

"Many of van Lommel and colleagues' patients received a similar cocktail of drugs during resuscitation. I suggest that their patients' near-death experiences were simply an episode of consciousness modulated by drugs, hypoxia, hypercarbia, or other physiological stressors."

 

[328] 2 Chronicles 33:6: "[H]e observed times, and used enchantments, and used witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, and with wizards: he wrought much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke him to anger."

 

Isaiah 47:13: "Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee."

 

Micah 5:12: "And I will cut off witchcrafts out of thine hand; and thou shalt have no more soothsayers…."

 

Malachi 3:5: "And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages…."

 

NOTE: These are only a few of the many passages throughout the Bible that condemn these practices.

 

[329] Study: "Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands." By Pim van Lommel and others. The Lancet, December 15, 2001. Pages 2039-2045. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/...

 

NOTE: This study contains a copy of the nurse's written description of the incident. In correspondence with the author, he added that the researchers "talked a lot with the nurse, and with the patient, and verified a lot of the details the patient had been talking about." These details were reported in a 1991 paper published in a journal of the Netherlands Heart Foundation called Cordiaal.

 

[330] Book: Warmth Disperses and Time Passes: The History of Heat. By Hans Christian von Baeyer. Modern Library, 1999. Page 129.

 

NOTE: The letter was dated March 15, 1955, and Einstein died on April 18, 1955.

 

[331] Article: "Belief in God 'childish,' Jews not chosen people: Einstein letter." Agence France-Presse, May 13, 2008. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=...

 

Quoting a January 3, 1954 letter written by Einstein in German: "The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honourable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish."

 

[332] Exodus 14:21-22: "And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left."

 

Matthew 14:25-26: "And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear."

 

Matthew 28:5-10:

 

And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you. And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.

 

[333] Entry: "miracle." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004.

 

"[A]n extraordinary occurrence that surpasses all known human powers or natural forces."

 

[334] Book: A Treatise on the Law of Evidence. By Simon Greenleaf. Little, Brown and Company, Volume 1, Third edition, 1846. First published in 1842. Section 8.

 

NOTE: Biographical details about Simon Greenleaf are located on page 97 of Rational Conclusions.

 

[335] Article: "Parents cling to hope for 'Jane Doe'." By Marney Rich Keenan. Detroit News, October 14, 2003. http://detnews.com/

 

[336] Article: "'Jane Doe' Beats Odds, Awakens from Coma." By Marney Rich Keenan. Detroit News, February 10, 2004. http://detnews.com/

 

[337] Article: "Science or Miracle? Holiday Season Survey Reveals Physicians' Views of Faith, Prayer and Miracles." Business Wire, December 20, 2004. http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/...

 

[338] I first became aware of this example through the following article: "The Bethsaida Miracle." By D. Keith Mano. National Review, Apr 21, 1997.

 

[339] Mark 8:22b-24

 

[340] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Pages 114-115:

 

But when Virgil opened his eye, after being blind for forty-five years—having had little more than an infant's visual experience, and this long forgotten—there were no visual memories to support a perception; there was no world of experience and meaning awaiting him. He saw, but what he saw had no coherence. His retina and optic nerve were active, transmitting impulses, but his brain could not make sense of them….

 

NOTE: Dr. Sacks is a neurologist who specializes in adaptation to neurological disorders.

 

[341] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Virgil told me later that in this first moment [of sight] he had no idea what he was seeing. There was light, there was movement, there was color, all mixed up, all meaningless, a blur. Then out the blur came a voice that said, "Well?" Then, and only then, he said, did he finally realize that this chaos of light and shadow was a face—and, indeed, the face of his surgeon. His experience was virtually identical to that of Gregory's patient S.B., who was accidentally blinded in infancy, and received a corneal transplant in his fifties:

 

[W]hen the bandages were removed … [h]e heard a voice coming from in front of him and to one side: he turned to the source of the sound, and saw a "blur." He realized that this must be a face…. He seemed to think that he would not have known that this was a face if he had not previously heard the voice and known that voices came from faces.

 

[342] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Page 123.

 

[343] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Page 109: "Amy, who began keeping a journal the day after the operation—the day the bandages were removed—wrote in her initial entry: "Virgil can SEE! … (Entire office in tears, first time Virgil has sight in forty years….)"

 

[344] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Page 121:

 

Now, five weeks after his surgery…. Virgil's cat and dog bounded in to greet and check us—and Virgil, we noted, had some difficulty telling which was which. This comic and embarrassing problem had persisted since he returned home from surgery: both animals, as it happened, were black and white, and he kept confusing them—to their annoyance—until he could touch them, too.

 

[345] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Page 115: "With the cataract out, Virgil was able to see colors and movements, to see (but not identify) large objects and shapes, and, astonishingly, to read some letters on the third line of the standard Snellen eye chart—the line corresponding to a visual acuity of about 20/100 or a little better."

 

[346] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Page 129: "Gregory's patient S.B. could not recognize individual faces, or their expressions, a year after his eyes had been operated on, despite perfectly normal elementary vision."

 

[347] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Page 124: "Many—or perhaps all—patients in Virgil's situation had had similar difficulties."

 

Page 128: "All newly sighted subjects, indeed, have radical difficulties with appearances, finding themselves suddenly plunged into a world that, for them, may be a chaos of continually shifting, unstable, evanescent appearances."

 

[348] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Page 130:

 

Mindful of Virgil's passion for listening to baseball games, we found a channel with a game in progress. It seemed at first as if he were following it visually, because he could describe who was batting, what was going on. But as soon as we turned off the sound he was lost. It became evident that he himself perceived little beyond streaks of light and colors and motions, and that all the rest (what he seemed to see) was interpretation, performed swiftly, and perhaps unconsciously, in consonance with the sound.

 

[349] Book: An Anthropologist on Mars. By Oliver Sacks. Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

 

Page 129: "Moving objects presented a special problem, for their appearance changed constantly. Even his dog, he told me, looked so different at different times that he wondered if it was the same dog."

 

[350] Mark 8:24-25

 

[351] Mark 1:1: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God…."

 

Mark 15:39: "And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God."

 

[352] This was the name given to a high school physics lecture by one of my favorite teachers, Mr. Batz. In it, he expounded upon the immensity of the universe and the astonishing phenomena we find within it, such as black holes. He accepted the Big Bang theory, but wondered what may have occurred in the split second beforehand.

 

[353] Book: Our Cosmic Habitat. By Martin Rees. Princeton University Press, 2001.

 

Page 180: "Newton was perhaps the greatest scientific intellect of the second millennium."

 

[354] Book: The Riddle of Gravitation. By Peter G. Bergmann. Revised and updated version. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1987. Page 5:

 

It is almost impossible for us to do full justice to the genius of Newton. He was able to develop Kepler's laws into a comprehensive physical theory only because he managed to first create the necessary mathematical tools: Newton "invented" differential and integral calculus, the basic mathematical techniques required for dealing with variable quantities, such as the movements of bodies in the course of time.

 

[355] Book: Books That Changed the World. By Robert Bingham Downs. Signet Classic, 2004. First published in 1956.

 

Page 203: "Lagrange, famous mathematician, asserted that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived."

 

[356] Book: The Refrigerator and the Universe: Understanding the Laws of Energy. By Martin Goldstein and Inge F. Goldstein. Harvard University Press, 1993.

 

Page 19: [Newton's laws of motion have] "been described as the greatest single advance in human knowledge ever made."

 

[357] Book: Albert Einstein: Ideas and Opinions. Introduced by Alan Lightman. Based on Mein Weltbild, edited by Carl Seelig and other sources. Modern Library, 1994.

 

Page 292 (Quoting Einstein on November 9, 1930): "In order to put his system into mathematical form at all, Newton had to devise the concept of differential quotients and propound the laws of motion in the form of total differential equations—perhaps the greatest advance in thought that a single individual was ever privileged to make."

 

[358] Article: "Newton, Sir Isaac." New Millennium Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster, 1999. 

 

[359] Book: Newton's Scientific and Philosophical Legacy. Edited by P.B. Scheurer and G. Debrock. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988. Page 81: "Newton's Biblical Theology and his Theological Physics." By Richard H. Popkin.

 

"Newton wrote on religion and theology from his college days down to the end of his life. Almost half of the pages that he physically wrote, most still unpublished, deal with explicating the Bible, interpreting it, and developing a theory of Scriptural and natural revelation."

 

[360] Book: Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings. Edited and arranged with notes by H. S. Thayer. Hafner Press, 1953. Page 66.

 

[361] Book: Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings. Edited and arranged with notes by H. S. Thayer. Hafner Press, 1953. Pages 47-9.

 

[362] Book: Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings. Edited and arranged with notes by H. S. Thayer. Hafner Press, 1953.

 

[363] Book: Books That Changed the World. By Robert Bingham Downs. Signet Classic, 2004. First published in 1956.

 

Page 203: "Laplace, a brilliant French astronomer, termed the Principia 'pre-eminent above any other production of human genius.' … Boltzmann, a pioneer of modern mathematical physics, called the Principia the first and greatest work ever written on theoretical physics.'"

 

[364] Book: The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Volume 3 of 7. Edited by H. W. Turnbull. Cambridge University Press, 1961.

 

Page 233 (written December 10, 1692): "When I wrote my treatise about our Systeme I had an eye upon such Principles as might work wth considering men for the beliefe of a Deity & nothing can rejoyce me more then to find it usefull for that purpose."

 

[365] Article: "Maxwell, James Clerk." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004.

 

"[Maxwell] is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein for the fundamental nature of his contributions."

 

[366] Book: The Man who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Basil Mahon. Wiley, 2003. Pages 2-3:

 

Maxwell would be among the world's greatest scientists even if he had never set to work on electricity and magnetism. He introduced statistical methods into physics; now they are used as a matter of course. He demonstrated the principle by which we see colors and took the world's first color photograph. His whimsical creation, Maxwell's demon, was the first effective scientific thought experiment, a technique Einstein later made his own. … [It] stimulated the creation of information theory, which underpins our communications and computing. He wrote a paper on automated control systems many years before anyone else gave thought to the subject; it became the foundation of modern control theory and cybernetics. He designed the Cavendish laboratory and, as its founding director started a brilliant revival of Cambridge's scientific tradition…. He showed how to use polarized light to reveal strain patterns in a structure and invented a neat and powerful graphical method for calculating the forces in any framework; both techniques became standard engineering practice.

 

NOTE: Pages 176-85 expound upon these contributions.

 

[367] Article: "Scot's winning formula trumps Einstein." By Alastair Jamieson & Mike Maceacheran. The Scotsman, October 14, 2004.

 

It doesn't mean much to those of us without a degree in physics, but a formula devised by a Scottish scientist has been voted the best of all time by a group of experts - beating calculations by Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton. … Martin Durrani, deputy editor of Physics World, said: "Maxwell was one of the greatest scientists who have ever lived."

 

[368] Article: "Scot's winning formula trumps Einstein." By Alastair Jamieson & Mike Maceacheran. The Scotsman, October 14, 2004.

 

[369] Book: Communications: An Internal History of the Formative Years. By Russell W. Burns. The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2004. Page 253.

 

[370] Book: The Man who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Basil Mahon. Wiley, 2003.

 

Page 2: "As another great physicist, Max Planck, put it, the [Maxwell's] theory must be numbered among the greatest of all intellectual achievements."

 

[371] Book: The Man who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Basil Mahon. Wiley, 2003. Page 1.

 

[372] Book: The Man who Changed Everything: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Basil Mahon. Wiley, 2003. Pages 184-5.

 

[373] Book: Littell's Living Age. Fifth series, Volume 47. Littell and Company, 1883. Page 784.

 

NOTE: The article on Maxwell (771f) is a reprint from the London Quarterly Review.

 

[374] Book: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Lewis Campbell and William Garnett. First published in 1882. With a new preface and appendix with letters by Robert H. Kargon. Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1969. Page 225.

 

NOTE: This quote appears in an essay written in 1853 for the Apostle's Club at Cambridge University entitled, "What is the Nature of Evidence of Design?" That the "design" he is referring to is the handiwork of God is evidenced by the essay's content and the alternative title he gave to it: "Ought the Discovery of a Plurality of Intelligent Creators to weaken our Belief in an Ultimate First Cause?"

 

[375] Book: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Lewis Campbell and William Garnett. First published in 1882. With a new preface and appendix with letters by Robert H. Kargon. Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1969. Pages 309-10 (in a letter dated May 6, 1858).

 

[376] Book: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Lewis Campbell and William Garnett. First published in 1882. With a new preface and appendix with letters by Robert H. Kargon. Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1969. Page 339 (in a letter dated June 23, 1864).

 

[377] Book: The Life of James Clerk Maxwell. By Lewis Campbell and William Garnett. First published in 1882. With a new preface and appendix with letters by Robert H. Kargon. Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1969. Page 158 (in a letter dated November 9, 1851).

 

[378] Book: The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell. Volume 3. Edited by P.M. Harman. Cambridge University Press, 2002. Page 418 (in a letter dated November 22, 1876):

 

But I should be very sorry if an interpretation founded on a most conjectural scientific hypothesis were to get fastened to the text in Genesis… The rate of change of scientific hypothesis is naturally much more rapid than that of Biblical interpretations, so that if an interpretation is founded on such a hypothesis, it may help to keep the hypothesis above ground long after it ought to be buried and forgotten.

       

At the same time I think that each individual man should do all he can to impress his own mind with the extent, the order, and the unity of the universe, and should carry these ideas with him as he reads such passages as [Colossians 1], just as enlarged conceptions of the extent and unity of the world of life may be of service to us in reading [Psalms 8, Hebrews 2:6], etc.

 

[379] Book: George Washington Carver: The Man Who Overcame." By Lawrence Elliot. Prentice-Hall, 1966. Pages 2, 22-23, 227.

 

[380] Book: George Washington Carver: The Man Who Overcame." By Lawrence Elliot. Prentice-Hall, 1966.

 

Page 209 states that he developed 105 foods and 200 other products made from peanuts. He also developed 118 products from sweet potatoes.

 

Page 207: "He would continue to make momentous contributions in an astonishingly broad spectrum of human knowledge—agronomy, nutrition, chemistry, genetics, mycology, plant pathology—but more and more his interests turned to the creation of useful materials from the waste products of agriculture and industry."

 

[381] Book: George Washington Carver: The Man Who Overcame." By Lawrence Elliot. Prentice-Hall, 1966. Page 209.

 

[382] Book: George Washington Carver: The Man Who Overcame." By Lawrence Elliot. Prentice-Hall, 1966. Pages 158-159, 84.

 

[383] Book: George Washington Carver: His Life & Faith in His Own Words. By William J. Federer. Amerisearch, 2002. Page 72 (in a letter dated February 24, 1930).

 

[384] Book: George Washington Carver: His Life & Faith in His Own Words. By William J. Federer. Amerisearch, 2002. Page 73 (in a letter dated February 24, 1930).

 

[385] Article: "William Thomson, Baron Kelvin." Britannica Concise, 2007. http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9369038

 

[386] Book: Mother Nature's Two Laws: Ringmasters for Circus Earth. Lessons on Entropy, Energy, Critical Thinking, and the Practice of Science. By A.D. Kirwan, Jr. World Scientific, 2000. Page 3.

 

[387] Article: "Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004.

 

[388] Book: The Nature of the Physical World. By. Arthur Eddington. MacMilllan, 1929.

 

Page 74: "The law that entropy always increases—the second law of thermodynamics— holds, I think, the supreme position among the laws of Nature. If … your pet theory of the universe…is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics, I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation."

 

[389] Article: "Lord Kelvin. By Silvanus P. Thompson. International Electrotechnical Commission, 2007. http://www.iec.ch/about/history/articles/lkbio-e.htm

 

The letter is dated August 6th, 1855.

 

[390] Book: Kelvin the Man. By Agnes Gardner King. Hodder and Stoughton, 1925.

 

Page 28 (quoting Kelvin): "If you think strongly enough, you will be forced by Science to a belief in God, which is the foundation of all religion."

 

[391] Book: Christian Apologetics: A Series of Addresses Delivered Before the Christian Association of University College London. By Henry Wace and Others. E. P. Dutton and Co., 1903. Pages 1, 24-26 (citing a speech by Kelvin on May 1st, 1903):

 

Science positively affirms Creative Power. … We only know God in His works, but we are absolutely forced by science to believe with perfect confidence in a Directive Power—in an influence other than physical, or dynamical, or electrical forces. … If you think strongly enough you will be forced by science to the belief in God, which is the foundation of all religion.

 

[392] Article: "Pasteur, Louis." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004.

 

"[Pasteur's] contributions were among the most varied and valuable in the history of science and industry. It was he who proved that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease; he who originated and was the first to use vaccines for rabies, anthrax, and chicken cholera…."

 

[393] Web page: "Louis Pasteur." The Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. http://www.iemrams.spb.ru:8100/english/pasteur.htm

 

This page refers to Pasteur as "the greatest biologist of the nineteenth century" and states: "Pasteur's contribution to science is enormous. His studies started several new branches of medicine, chemistry and biology: stereochemistry, microbiology, virology, immunology, bacteriology, vaccination and pasteurization."

 

[394] Book: The Life of Pasteur. By René Vallery-Radot. Translated from the French by R. L. Devonshire. Doubleday, 1919.

 

Page 148 (quoting Pasteur): "Science, which brings man nearer to God."

 

[395] Article: "Boyle, Robert." World Book Encyclopedia, 2007 Deluxe Edition.

 

[396] Article: "Boyle, Robert." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2004.

 

[397] Book: Robert Boyle: A Study in Science and Christian Belief. By R. Hooykaas. Written in 1943. Translated by H. Van Dyke. University Press of America, 1997.

 

Page 20: "Boyle is also the first chemist of importance to be at the same time significant for physics; he was the first to practice chemistry consciously as a "science" rather than as an "art." … Thanks to Boyle, chemistry became, as it were, and official science and emerged from the obscurity of laboratories into the full light of day."

 

[398] Work: The Christian Virtuoso, I. By Robert Boyle, 1690-1. In The Works of Robert Boyle. Edited by Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis. Volume 11 of 14. Pickering & Chatto, 2000.

 

NOTE: I have modernized some of the spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the quotes.

 

[399] Work: The Christian Virtuoso, I. By Robert Boyle, 1690-1. In The Works of Robert Boyle. Edited by Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis. Volume 11 of 14. Pickering & Chatto, 2000. Page 296.

 

[400] Work: The Christian Virtuoso, I. By Robert Boyle, 1690-1. In The Works of Robert Boyle. Edited by Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis. Volume 11 of 14. Pickering & Chatto, 2000. Page 295.

 

[401] Article: "Kepler, Johannes." Webster's Biographical Dictionary. Simon & Schuster, 1999.

 

"[Kepler is considered the] founder of modern optics by his postulation of the ray theory of light to explain vision."

 

[402] Book: Matter and Man. By Mikhail Vasilyev & Kirill Stanyukovich. University Press of the Pacific, 2000. Page 65.

 

[403] Article: "Kepler, Johannes." Encyclopedia Americana. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2004.

 

"[Kepler] placed astronomy on modern foundations through his lifelong work on the planetary orbits…."

 

[404] Book: Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. By Carola Baumgardt. With an introduction by Albert Einstein. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952. Page 17.

 

[405] Book: The Quest for Unity: The Adventure of Physics. By Étienne Klein & Marc Lachiéze-Rey. Translated by Axel Reisinger. Oxford University Press, 1999.

 

Page 18: "Some of his successors, notably Galileo and Newton, are often hailed as the founders of modern science. But their own achievements depended critically on Kepler's genius."

 

[406] Book: Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. By Carola Baumgardt. With an introduction by Albert Einstein. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952.

 

NOTE: Proof of this statement is evident throughout this book.

 

[407] Book: Kepler. By Max Caspar. Translated and edited by C. Doris Hellman. Abelard-Schuman, 1959.

 

Page 374: "All of its own accord at every opportunity the name of God crosses his lips…."

 

[408] Book: Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. By Carola Baumgardt. With an introduction by Albert Einstein. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952. Page 57 (December 16, 1598).

 

[409] Book: Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. By Carola Baumgardt. With an introduction by Albert Einstein. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952. Pages 31-33.

 

[410] Book: Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. By Carola Baumgardt. With an introduction by Albert Einstein. Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1952. Page 129 (in the year 1619).

 

[411] Web page: "Creation Scientists and other Biographies of Interest." Answers in Genesis, 2008. http://www.answersingenesis.org/Home/Area/bios/

 

[412] Third Letter on Sunspots. From Galileo Galilei to Mark Welser, 1612. Translated in the book: Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Translated with an introduction and notes by Stillman Drake. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957. Page 134.

 

[413] Article: "The Geophysics of God." By Chandler Burr. U.S. News & World Report, June 16, 1997. Pages 55-58.

 

[414] Article: "An Interview with Dr John Baumgardner." The Lookout, February 8, 1998. http://www.rae.org/believe.html

 

[415] "Interview with French scientist Dr André Eggen." By Ken Ham. Creation Ex Nihilo, September–November 1998. http://creation.com/french-creation

 

[416] Book: On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God. Edited by John F. Ashton. Master Books, 2002. Pages 267-272.

 

[417] Web page: "Drug Sensitivity Testing -- Information Sheet for Patients." Bath Cancer Research. Modified November 2, 2008. http://www.caltri.org/patients.htm

 

"Individualized tumor response tests for other NHS patients will generally cost £395.00 [≈ $800] to test the sensitivity to 20+ cytotoxic drugs."

 

[418] Book: On the Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God. Edited by John F. Ashton. Master Books, 2002. Pages 270.

 

[419] Ancient Work: Dialogue on the Great World Systems. By Galileo Galilei. Published in 1632. Translated by Thomas Salusbury. Revised and introduced by Giorgio de Santillana. University of Chicago Press, 1953.

 

The introduction states: "He was a man of the Renaissance, and a Christian of the old persuasion, to whom all this new-fangled apparatus of thought police and propaganda brought about by the Counter-Reformation made little sense."

 

[420] Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina. Written in 1615 by Galileo Galilei. Translated in the book: Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. By Stillman Drake. Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957. Page 181.